Table of Contents
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’S)
- Q1. What benefits does chromatography offer for laboratory analysis?
- Q2. What benefits can immunoassays offer for laboratory testing?
- Q3. Which difficulties arise during immunoassay testing?
- Q4. Which kinds of immunoassays are there?
- Q5. How does laboratory testing use chromatography?
- Q6. Which chromatography types are frequently employed in labs?
Two crucial methods utilized in laboratory testing, particularly in the domains of analytical chemistry, clinical diagnostics, and biochemistry, are chromatography and immunoassays. These techniques are essential for the detection and examination of a wide range of materials, including chemical compounds and biomolecules.
Biochemical tests known as immunoassays use the interaction between antibodies and antigens to identify and measure a variety of chemicals, including medicines, proteins, hormones, and infectious agents.
The immunological system’s specificity is the basis of immunoassay principles. Target molecules (antigens) are recognised and bound to by antibodies, which are proteins made by the immune system in reaction to particular antigens.
In clinical laboratories, immunoassays are frequently used for disease diagnosis, medication level monitoring, infectious agent detection, and research in a variety of domains.
Chromatography is a technique for chemical separation that is used to analyze and separate mixtures of substances according to how differently they bind to a stationary phase and a mobile phase.
The distribution of components between the mobile phase, which is a liquid or gas that passes through the stationary phase, and the stationary phase, which is a solid or liquid support, is the basis of chromatography. Separation results from the movement of components with varying affinities for various phases at different rates.
Chromatography is used to separate, identify, and measure diverse components in complicated mixtures in a variety of applications, including forensics, environmental studies, food and beverage testing, medicines, and clinical diagnostics.
Both chromatography and immunoassays are flexible methods with many uses in the lab that yield insightful data for investigations, diagnosis, and quality assurance.
|Relies on the specific binding of an antigen with an antibody
|Separates components in a mixture based on their differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases
|Generally higher sensitivity
|Sensitivity can vary depending on the technique and conditions
|High specificity for targeted molecules
|Specificity depends on the selectivity of the stationary and mobile phases
|Suited for analyzing biological samples like blood, urine, or saliva
|Applicable for various sample types, including organic compounds, environmental samples, and more
|Offers relatively high throughput
|Throughput may vary depending on the type of chromatography technique used
|Typically wider dynamic range
|Detection range varies depending on the type of chromatography used
|Can be expensive depending on the specific chromatography technique and equipment used
|Rapid turnaround time for results
|Speed of analysis can vary depending on the specific technique and equipment
|Often highly automated
|Automation levels may vary depending on the complexity of the chromatography technique
|May face interference from endogenous substances
|Can be affected by matrix effects and interference from other components in the sample
|Widely used in clinical diagnostics and research
|Applied in various fields such as environmental analysis, pharmaceutical development, and more
|Relies on specific antibodies or antigens as reagents
|Relies on specific stationary and mobile phases as well as appropriate solvents
|Relatively simple instrumentation
|Requires sophisticated equipment and expertise
|Can be more portable in some instances
|Often requires a stable laboratory setting and specialized equipment
|Lower resolution compared to chromatography
|Offers higher resolution for complex sample separations
|Suitable for both qualitative and quantitative analysis
|Primarily used for quantitative analysis
|Requires rigorous validation for clinical use
|Validation protocols may differ depending on the specific chromatography technique
|Often requires minimal sample preparation
|Can demand complex sample preparation protocols
|Sensitivity to Matrix
|Can be sensitive to matrix effects
|Can handle complex matrices with appropriate methods and techniques
|Limited applicability in certain sample matrices
|Applicable to a wide range of sample matrices with suitable adaptations
|Relies on the specificity of antibodies
|Selectivity depends on the choice of stationary and mobile phases
|Reagents may require specific storage conditions
|Samples may require specific storage conditions to maintain integrity
|Relatively less complex in terms of technique
|Can be more complex, especially in terms of understanding the separation mechanisms
|Often requires smaller sample volumes
|Can handle larger sample volumes depending on the specific chromatography technique
|Sensitivity to Temperature
|May be sensitive to temperature fluctuations
|Can be sensitive to temperature fluctuations, especially during analysis